Science. 0000089804 00000 n Before the 20th century, this lagoon was one of the most important wetlands on the Peninsula, covering almost 5,000 hectares during the wet season. Dams on the Mekong: cumulative sediment starvation. Studies reveal that by protecting 50 percent of the land and ocean around the world, plant and animal species could thrive. Wetlands include marshes, swamps, bogs, and similar areas that are periodically saturated with or covered by water. The situation is even worse in waterways, coastal areas, and the ocean. Habitat destruction, defined as the elimination or alteration of the conditions necessary for animals and plants to survive, not only impacts individual species but the health of the global ecosystem. Earth-Sci. The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive understanding of the importance of coastal wetlands, their current status of losses and consequences at different regions, and challenges faced for restoration. Wetlands are among the most biologically productive ecosystems in the world. Kirwan M.L., Temmerman S., Skeehan E.E., and Guntenspergen G.R. Wetlands are one of the most ecologically valuable ecosystems on Earth. Wetlands help prevent erosion in 2 ways: 1) Wetland plants serve as a physical barrier by taking the punishment of the waves crashing into shore or the water running down a hill. Wetland losses around the world are truly dramatic. Potential use of. Why Does Wetland Loss Cause These Negative Impacts? They provide food and habitat for a diverse array of plants and animals, act as buffers to flooding and erosion, and serve as key links in the global water cycle. %PDF-1.4 % Due to environmental degradation, the results include water scarcity and decline in quality foods. This is because of the human activities such as acidifying water systems, over-exploitation of natural resources, overpopulation, and the deliberate and indirect destruction of natural systems necessary for the survival of different species. Manage. The data obtained from interviews were concerned with the causes of wetland destruction, condition of wetland and threat to the wetland in Makhitha village. Surrounding the Bohai Sea, Northern China, more than 2000km, Between 1780 and 1980, the United States faced extensive loss of its wetlands across the continents; some states lost more than 80% of their wetland coverage (, Dams and reservoirs constructed in rivers have prevented 20% of the global sediment inputs from reaching the coast (, Subsurface mining of oil, gas, and water often accelerate ground compaction and delta sinking, causing frequent flooding. Reduction in air quality is responsible for more than 300,000 deaths annually and millions of chronic diseases. 0000026546 00000 n Wetlands restoration is a major component of the overall Great Lakes Restoration Initiative. Massel S.R., Furukawa K., and Brinkman R.M. (from Wetlands of Maryland, Tiner and Burke, 1995).However, recent trends in federal and State laws governing wetlands have provided for preservation, protection, restoration and creation of wetlands throughtout Maryland. Simply select your manager software from the list below and click Download. 1997. International Science Roundtable for the Media, 4 June 2002, Bali, Indonesia. Geosci. 10.1016/j.rser.2014.01.056 [Google Scholar] 2012. Ma Z.J., Melville D.S., Liu J.G., Chen Y., Yang H.Y., Ren W.W., et al. Proc. Successful restoration requires both semi-natural vegetation structure and a high diversity of fauna groups, to ensure multi-functionality of the restored ecosystem. Nicholls R.J. and Cazenave A. 2014. Profound consequences have been caused by coastal wetland loss, such as habitat loss for wild species, CO. 2012. The State of Maryland pledges to provide constituents, businesses, customers, and stakeholders with friendly and courteous, timely and responsive, accurate and consistent, accessible and convenient, and truthful and transparent services. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, Gland, Switzerland. The Implications for Loss and Degradation of Wetland Ecosystems on The number of threatened species persists to multiply worldwide whereas some have completely gone extinct. Comparative analysis of modeled nitrogen removal by shellfish farms. 0000069771 00000 n The world coastal wetland lost more than 50% of its area in the 20th century, largely before their great value, such as wave attenuation, erosion control, biodiversity support, and carbon sequestration . Pollution impacts the chemical compositions of lands, soil, ocean water, underground water and rocks, and other natural processes. Sediment deposition patterns in. Many ocean shores are currently eroding 1 to 4 feet per year. Pak. Select from the 0 categories from which you would like to receive articles. Marine and Freshwater Research(en ingls)65(10): 934-941. Despite all those and other indispensable values, these wetlands are under severe pressure and degradation. The state of world fisheries and aquaculture 2016. A blueprint for blue carbon: toward an improved understanding of the role of vegetated coastal habitats in sequestering CO. Meehl, G.A., Stocker, T.F., Collins, W.D., Friedlingstein, P., Gaye, A.T., Gregory, J.M., et al. The total decline of wetland since 1978 is estimated at 41,000 acres, with the rate of decline slowing between the periods 1978 to 1998 (loss of approximately 1,642 acres per year) and 1998 to 2005 (approximately 1,157 acres per year). 2015. And degraded lands are also often less able to hold onto water, which can worsen flooding. Clarifying the role of coastal and marine systems in climate mitigation. Caribbean has lost 80% of its coral reef cover in recent years. 0000003694 00000 n Ecol. Conversion to agricultural use was the primary cause for most of the losses, but urbanization, reservoir construction, highway construction, and other activities also contributed. J. Geophys. Wetlands. Scott, D.A. It even interferes with the animals interactive food chains because the chemicals contaminate plants, and waters which are consumed by the animals. Hinrichsen, D., and Olsen, S. 1998. wetlands and aquatic life. 2011. Res. 0000095675 00000 n Landfills ; One of the calamitous effects of landfills is the destruction of nearby environmental health together with its ecosystems. 0000001348 00000 n 0000042130 00000 n Please enable JavaScript in your browser. Lett. Larson C. 2015. The low water level allows for the establishment of all types of plants, which in turn support an enormous diversity of animals. Since the early 1800s, 40 percent, or 4.273 million acres, of Michigans wetlands have been destroyed due to drainage, farming, housing, roads construction, and other development. Res. endstream endobj 31 0 obj <> endobj 32 0 obj <> endobj 33 0 obj <>/ColorSpace<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 34 0 obj <> endobj 35 0 obj <> endobj 36 0 obj <> endobj 37 0 obj <> endobj 38 0 obj <> endobj 39 0 obj <> endobj 40 0 obj <> endobj 41 0 obj [/CalRGB<>] endobj 42 0 obj [/Separation/All 41 0 R 60 0 R] endobj 43 0 obj <>stream Rupprecht F., Mller I., Paul M., Kudella M., Spencer T., van Wesenbeeck B.K., et al. Federal Register :: Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants Human health is heavily impacted by environmental degradation. In conclusion, we can say that wetlands are extremely important ecosystems for many animals, particularly birds. These disasters can also destroy alter the nature of the landscape rendering it unable to support life forms on it. 2002. The ROE indicator does not describe spatial patterns of wetland changewhether large wetlands are being left intact, or whether they are being fragmented into smaller pieces that are less connected and more isolated, and therefore less able to perform ecological functions. 0000096057 00000 n Habitat is the entire living area of an ecosystem. Macmillan Publ. Available from. But wetlands are still under threat. Long-term and recent trends in global wetland area. Wetlands help prevent erosion in 2 ways: 1) Wetland plants serve as a physical barrier by taking the punishment of the waves crashing into shore or the water running down a hill. 4 February 2011. About two-thirds of marine animals, such as fish, shrimps, crabs, mollusks, and turtles, have to spend some time at coastal wetlands during their life history, and over 90% of marine fisheries are sourced from coastal zones, either through harvesting of wild organisms or mariculture (, In terms of carbon sequestered in the soil or sediments of different ecosystems, the mean long-term rates of carbon sequestration for salt marshes, mangroves, and seagrasses (>100g C m, Carbon sequestration by mangroves, salt marshes, and seagrass beds is highly variable with estimations of combined global rates ranging between 0.23 and 0.77 Pg CO, Like the organic carbon in terrestrial ecosystems, most of the organic carbon in coastal wetlands is stored underground and insufficiently investigated (. Arkema K.K., Verutes G.M., Wood S.A., Clarkesamuels C., Rosado S., Canto M., et al. The buffer function for pollutant degradation, erosion, and land subsidence will be lowered, with increased risk from storm surge and flooding. 1999. Condition is difficult to measure because it is made up of many different attributes, and each wetland has its own unique baseline condition, function, hydrology (water flow), and combination of plant and animal species. This paper is supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2017YFC0506000), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41271065, 41571083, 41371112), the 111 project (B08022), the Distinguished 1000 Talents Foreign Expert Program, and the State Ocean Administration of China (201505012). Remote sensing monitoring and spatialtemporal variation of Bohai Bay coastal zone. Jil B., Kumara M.P., Pulukuttige J.L., Karin V., Veronique M., and Mark H. 2015. Landfills increase the risk of hazardous materials getting into the food chain which causes biomagnification and the ultimate risk of developing chronic diseases. If we help in their conservation, we promote the long-term permanence of thousands of species that have wetlands as their home. 69 0 obj <>stream Human activities can also increase the extent of wetlandsfor example, by creating shallow ponds or re-establishing formerly drained wetlands on farmlands. In Michigan, land use planning and new development must take into account the essential services of wetlands for preservation and restoration to be successful. In fact, 80% of the worlds large deltas have experienced severe flooding in the last decades (, Moreover, degradation caused by saltwater intrusion, drought, and pollution are also threatening the health of coastal wetlands (. Li X.Z., Ren L.J., Liu Y., Craft C., Mander U., and Yang S. 2014. According to the. Ecol. 2014. Degradation of the environment has recorded a continued destruction of wild forests and the damage of natural ecosystems that has greatly contributed to the mass extinction of species. Coastal management: wetland issues in integrated coastal zone management. This article is open access. Thats because theyre home to a very high level of biodiversity, particularly of birds. Incorporating ecosystem services into coastal planning will achieve greater returns from coastal protection and tourism than from achieving conservation or development goals only (, Moreover, while faced with quick economic development along the world coast zones, we also need to make room for potential sea-level rise. 2014. Marani M., DAlpaos A., Lanzoni S., and Santalucia M. 2011. Sudden vegetation dieback in Atlantic and Gulf coast salt marshes. Wetlands destruction has increased flood and drought damage, nutrient runoff and water pollution, and shoreline erosion, and triggered a decline in wildlife populations. This indicator provides a comprehensive look at changes in the acreage of different types of wetlands since the 1950s, and classifies the causes of these changes. Sonneville, B., and van der Spek, A.J.F. Li X.M., Yuan C.Z., and Li Y.Y. Some natural events such as landslides and earthquakes may also degrade the nature of our environments. Contact Us . Serious consequences have already been caused by the coastal wetland loss, such as coastal flooding, erosion, and biodiversity decrease. Thanks to Michigans wetland protection law, losses have slowed dramatically since 1979. Hence, the lack of access to adequate basic needs such as water and food directly induce poverty. Reduce the Use of Pesticides and Fertilizers. Biologically controlled multiple equilibria of tidal landforms and the fate of the Venice lagoon. How does vegetation affect sedimentation on tidal marshes? And what can we do to prevent this? Available from. Springer, Dordrecht. According to theBrookings Institute, restoration of the Great Lakes will create economic benefits of at least $50 billion and create thousands of jobs. All rights reserved. 2017. Romero, J., Feijoo, C.G., and Navarrete, P. 2012. Nationally, perhaps the highest priority wetland habitat to protect and restore is the coastal wetland. Keep reading to discover more about the loss of wetlands. 2015. Wave attenuation over coastal salt marshes under storm surge conditions. If you have the appropriate software installed, you can download article citation data to the citation manager of your choice. UN Climate Change News, 01 October 2018 - Wetlands, amongst the world's most economically valuable ecosystems and essential regulators of the global climate, are disappearing three times faster than forests.. Regional decline of coral cover in the Indo-Pacific: timing, extent, and subregional comparisons. 1996 - 2019 National Geographic Society. Please click here to see any active alerts. Res. 0000002573 00000 n School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA. Rose J.M., Bricker S.B., and Ferreira J.G.
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